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Chemie FAQ: Häufig gestellte chemische Fragen

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Archive-name: sci/chem-faq/part7
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2 October 1997
Version: 1.16

31.11 What is Sarin nerve gas?.

Sarin is a nerve gas that was used in 1988 by Iraq against its Kurdish 
population, and in 1995 by Japanese terrorists against Tokyo subway users.
Sarin and its companion nerve gases ( Tabun and Soman ) were discovered 
in the late 1930s by Gerhard Schrader at I.G.Farben during research into 
pesticides. The lethal dose for humans may be as low as 0.01mg/kg [18], 
unless treated immediately. Sarin inhibits acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme 
that breaks down acetylcholine. Acetylcholine carries signals between nerves 
and muscles, and build-up causes over-stimulation of muscles ( including 
the involuntary ones controlling  eye, lungs, bowel ), which then go into 
spasms. Treatment involves atropine ( shuts down the overstimulated nerves ), 
or oxime drugs ( can prise Sarin off the enzyme ), and must be immediate.  
More details and references can be found in the Merck Index.

There are many different methods of manufacture, but the Tokyo product
appears to have been prepared using a procedure involving phosphorus 
trichloride and methyl iodide. The product was impure and diluted with 
acetonitrile to improve volatility. To stockpile Sarin, the product has to 
be pure ( 90-99% of the Iraqi Sarin degraded in < 2 years, whereas US Sarin 
only degraded a few % over 30 years ). The standard US government procedure 
( aka "di-di" ) starts with dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and ends
with a distillation to remove impurities [19].

    O                  O            O                  O     CH3
    ||     thionyl     ||   HF      ||  isopropyl      ||   /
CH3-P-OCH3 ------> CH3-P-Cl --> CH3-P-F ---------> CH3-P-O-CH   
    |     chloride     |            |    alcohol       |    \
    OCH3               Cl           F                  F     CH3

   DMPP              Dichlor     Difluor            Sarin (GB)

31.12 What are Dioxins?.

"Dioxins" are a group of closely-related compounds which are known as
polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). "dioxins" also commonly includes 
polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). All organic molecules that contain 
chlorine are also members of the "organochlorine" family.

               1       9                    1       9
             2/ \ _o_ / \8                2/ \ ___ / \8  
             | O |_o_| O |                | O |_o_| O |
             3\ /     \ /7                3\ /     \ /7
               4       6                    4       6

            Dibenzo-p-dioxin              Dibenzofuran

As dioxins are fat soluble, they will accumulate in fatty tissue. In general, 
it is only the biologically active ( molecules containing the 2,3,7,8 
substitution ) congeners that accumulate, with levels of the higher 
homologues predominating [20]. It is important to remember that of all the 
dioxins and furans, only those containing 4 to 8 chlorine atoms, _and_ with 
chlorine atoms in the 2,3,7,8 positions are currently considered toxic. 
The compounds only containing 0 to 3 chlorine atoms are currently not 
considered toxic, however once all four of the 2,3,7,8 positions are filled, 
the most toxic congener is created ( 2,3,7,8 TCDD = "dioxin" ). As additional 
chlorines are added, the toxicity decreases, except that 2,3,4,7,8 
pentachlorodibenzofuran is more toxic than 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzofuran.

There is evidence that suggests concentrations of dioxins and furans in 
human adipose tissue are falling [21]. The analysis for dioxin can reliably 
detect ppq ( parts per quadrillion = picograms/kilogram ) levels, but some
evidence suggests dioxins may still have toxic effects at such low levels. 
The toxicity of dioxins is currently being carefully assessed by the US EPA 
- who are due to present a comprehensive report in the next few months. The 
draft of the report, and various reviews, have been available for public 
comment and external peer review. A good discussion of current perceptions
is available in a special report published in the January 1995 Environmental 
Science and Technology [22], where both sides of the debate are presented. 

Dioxins can arise naturally from forest fires, but the major sources are
from incineration and the manufacture and use of organic chemicals. The most 
well-known source is perhaps as an impurity in the defoliant Agent Orange
which was widely used in Vietnam. Agent Orange was a 50:50 mixture of the
n-butyl esters of the herbicides 2,4-D ( 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ) and
2,4,5-T ( 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ), and dioxin was present as
an impurity in the 2,4,5-T. Another well known incident was an industrial
accident at a 2,4,5-trichlorophenol manufacturing plant in Seveso, Italy
on 10 July 1976 which resulted in the release of 1-5 kg of dioxin.  
Other dioxin sources involve combustion ( leaded gasoline, coal combustion, 
metallurgical processes )[20].   

As the various congeners have differing toxicity, dioxins are usually 
reported using Toxic Equivalents systems. These assign to each congener a 
toxicity factor relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, and these factors are used to 
calculate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD Toxic Equivalent. The International Toxic
Equivalent Factor (I-TEF) system, proposed by the Challenges to Modern 
Society Committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation is widely used.  
  
Food is the major source of dioxins for humans, and typical dietary intakes 
in the US for a 65kg adult were estimated to be between 18-192 pgTEQ/day [23],
and UK intakes were estimated to be 125 pgTEQ/day [20]. The Regional Office 
for Europe of the World Health Organisation suggests 10 pg/kg body weight/day
for 2,3,7,8-TCDD ( 600 pgTEQ/day for 60kg person ), as a Tolerable Daily 
Intake, whereas the US-EPA suggests an intake of 0.006 pg/kg/day over a 70 
year life will lead to one excess cancer in one million people. 
Sources of Dioxins in the UK diet                  pgTEQ/day
Meat, meat products, poultry, and offals            38
Cow's milk                                          23 
Fats and oils                                       19
Milk products                                       12
Fish                                                 7.7
Eggs, cereal products, fruit, and vegetables        25.3

31.13 What is Red Mercury?.

Red mercury is supposed to be a very powerful explosive that is being made 
in Russian nuclear reactors. According to one report, it is a cherry red and 
semi-liquid compound of pure mercury and mercury antimony oxide that is 
irradiated for up to 20 days in a nuclear reactor [24]. It is claimed that 
when incorporated in a fusion bomb, it can yield sufficient chemical energy 
to fuse tritium atoms. Experts are sceptical that such an energetic compound 
could be sufficiently stable to be used as an explosive, and no compelling
evidence for the existence of red mercury has yet been produced.  

31.14 How do I remove stains and deposits?

- Test any planned treatment on an unimportant part of the material first,
  (spots and holes aren't currently fashionable ).
- Chemicals for removing stains are often toxic and corrosive, handle with
  care, and follow any provided safety instructions.
- Often stains are a diverse mix of chemicals, and the best solution is
  to solubilise as much as possible, remove insoluble material through
  washing, and then carefully bleach. Chemists should not assume they can
  perform this process better than housewives. 
- Some stains are more easily removed by physical means - such as using
  abrasives ( household cleaning pastes, steel wool, metal polishes, etc ),
  or freezing solid and scraping ( chewing gum ).
- The fresher the stain, the easier to remove. Avoid using hot water or soap 
  on unknown stains, and use solvents (eg glycerine) to help keep the stain
  fresh. In cases when the stain is known to be water-soluble (eg bird 
  droppings ), it is often preferable to allow the stain to dry and carefully 
  scrape most away, before additional treatment.
- When using solvents, apply around the outer edge of the stain and work 
  towards the centre to prevent a stain ring forming. 
- Many stains result from pigments, and they are seldom soluble, so once the
  other components are removed, use physical agitation to remove the 
  insoluble material.
- Sometimes a dried stain can be "freshened" by using more of the stain 
  before treating - but use this approach very cautiously.

There are books on stain removal [25,26,27], and many of the common recipes 
are also often found in some home-care and cookery books. Home-care magazines 
also have question and answer sections that frequently include advice on 
how to remove specific stains. Very few chemical books cover chemical 
cleaning and stain removal, and smart chemists avoid offering to remove 
stains :-). Common stains are usually attacked with the household chemical 
arsenal that may include:-
* Absorbents - Cornflour, French chalk, fuller's earth, starch, talcum powder.
* Acids - Inorganic = hydrochloric ( galvanising remover, concrete cleaner ). 
        - Organic = acetic ( white vinegar ), citric ( lemon juice ), 
                    tartaric ( cream of tartar ) 
* Alkalis - Sodium hydroxide ( drain cleaner ), ammonia solution, 
* Bleaches - Sodium hypochlorite solution ( household bleach ), calcium 
             hypochlorite ( bleaching powder ), hydrogen peroxide 
* Drycleaning Fluids - 1,1,1-trichloroethane, perchloroethylene.
* Enzymes - Pepsin
* Petroleum Fractions - mineral turpentine, kerosine, gasoline, white spirits.
* Sodium carbonate ( washing soda ), sodium bicarbonate ( baking soda ),
  sodium tetraborate ( borax ).
* Solvents - Acetone ( nail polish remover ), amyl acetate, methanol, ethanol 
             ( methylated spirits ), glycerine, toluene, xylenes, iso propyl 
             alcohol.
* Terpenes - Eucalyptus oil, citrus oil, camphor 

Specific Stain Strategies.

Ballpoint - methylated spirits, fullers earth, glycerine.
Blood - cold salty water, cornflour paste, or dilute bleach.
Copper deposits on sink or bathtub - ammonia (1 hr) then detergent.
Chewing Gum - freeze, or sponge with eucalyptus oil.
Chocolate - methylated spirits, or soak in 5% borax solution
Lipstick - glycerine, eucalyptus oil, dry-cleaning fluids.
Rust - oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid
Tar - toluene, xylenes, eucalyptus oil.
Tea or Coffee - glycerine, warm borax solution
Wine - glycerine, borax solution, lemon juice

31.15 How do I remove rust?. 

It depends on the sample and amount of rust. If the material is heavily 
rusted, then physical techniques ( sand blasting ) may be appropriate. 
Chemical techniques on steel usually involve phosphoric acid, and the 
concentration depends whether the treatment can be washed off. An 
excellent discussion is available in  Product Finishing [28], along with
simple formulations. For removing light rust without subsequent removal
of the solution, 15% phosphoric acid + 4% n-butanol + <0.1% sulfuric acid 
is used, but if the solution can be washed away, then a faster acting
33% phosphoric acid + 2% n-butanol mixture is preferred.

31.16 How do I remove silver tarnish?.

Several commercial silver polishes use a fine abrasive ( such as calcium 
carbonate ) to physically remove the tarnish, and also include in their 
formulation components ( such as benzotriazole ), that form complexes or 
films that slow the reappearance of tarnish. There are also a variety of
chemical tarnish removers that contain sulfuric acid, sodium thiosulfate, 
or hot sodium phosphate, a chemical formulary should contain recipes.

A very popular technique for removing tarnish ( silver sulfide ), involves
an electrochemical cell that utilises the electrochemical series. In an
electrochemical cell, oxidation occurs at one electrode, whilst reduction
occurs at the other.  Electrical contact between the two metals provides the 
pathway for electron migration to occur from the anode to the cathode, and
when immersed in an electrolyte, charge will be balanced by transfer of
the sulfide ions. 

The standard electrode potential at 25C of Ag+ + e- -> Ag is +0.799V, and if 
the other metal is anodic relative to silver, the silver in the sulfide at 
the cathode will gain electrons and revert to metallic silver. The metal 
at the anode will be oxidized by the removal of electrons. The sulfide ions
can travel to the anode via the electrolyte. The electrochemical series 
indicates metals that will work, and some readily-available and cheap metals 
are iron, zinc, aluminium and magnesium. The standard electrode potential at 
25C of Al3+ + 3e- -> Al is -1.66V, and aluminium foil is cheap. 

When aluminium is the anode, and water is the electrolyte, the aluminium
surface will eventually be coated with an insulating film of aluminium 
sulfide - which will gradually decrease the cleaning speed. Adding sodium 
bicarbonate ( baking soda ) or sodium carbonate ( washing soda ) to the 
electrolyte will assist in the evolution of hydrogen as the silver is 
converted, and the hydrogen will combine with the sulfide ions to produce 
some hydrogen sulfide gas ( rotten eggs smell ). The aluminium at the anode 
will be converted to aluminium oxide. 

Aluminium oxidises on contact with air, forming an insulating layer of oxide
that is present on the surface of foil, disposable alumimium dishes, or 
pots that are commonly used as the anode when cleaning silver at home. 
Such a layer is brittle, and can micro-crack in hot water, and the higher 
temperatures can also increase the redox reaction rate. Cleaning formulations
may include sodium chloride ( table salt ), boric acid, or borax. It should 
be noted that the process is not converting the silver back to the original 
hard, lustrous surface, but into a soft, white powder that can be removed by 
rubbing. The sulfide has actually dislocated some silver atoms from the metal
surface, and the cleaning treatment will not relocate them, but it will 
eliminate the unsightly, dark, tarnish.

A typical procedure is to line a pyrex glass dish with alumimium foil so the 
bright side of the foil will contact the solution. Add one litre of water, 
and heat until near boiling. Add one tablespoon of sodium chloride and one 
tablespoon of sodium bicarbonate, and gently stir to dissolve. Ensure that
the silverware has been washed in warm dishwashing detergents, and well
rinsed in warm water, to remove dirt and grease. Carefully add the silverware 
to the dish, ensuring that each item is in contact with the aluminium foil, 
and leave until the tarnish has disapppeared. Because no protective film
has been provided, the tarnish may reappear rapidly.

31.17 How do I electroplate or anodise materials?.

There are several excellent books and journals on metal treatments in the
hobbies and metalworking sections of public libraries. For the serious
plater, the journals Surface Finishing and Product Finishing discuss all the
the chemical and electrical aspects - including disposal and destruction of
wastes. Their Annual Handbooks, along with the Canning Handbook of
Electroplating, have many recipes and details for the serious electroplater.
In any metal finishing process, the preparation of the substrate is of
great importance, and the recommended sequence of cleaning, pickling,
plating, and especially passivating should be carefully followed. 
Failure to correctly passivate newly-deposited protective surfaces is the
main cause of the rapid formation of unsightly corrosion products. 

31.18 How fast do solvents pass through human skin?

It obviously depends on the solvents, and traditional measurements have
been made using dead skin, but some recent work has provided a simple
comparison of individual solvents. It must be emphasised that mixtures of
solvents may have significantly different rates [29]. 

                                Permeability Constants in g/m2h 
 Solvent                        Average          Standard Deviation
 Dimethylsulfoxide                176                   42
 N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone           171                   59
 Dimethylacetimide                107                   19
 Dimethylformamide                 98                    1.1
 Methyl ethyl ketone               53                   29
 Methylene chloride                24                    8.4
 Water  [^3H radiolabeled]         14.8                  0.1
 Ethanol                           11.3                  0.5
 Butyl acetate                      1.6                  0.1
 gamma butyrolactone                1.1                  0.1
 Toluene                            0.8                  0.7
 Propylene carbonate                0.7                  0.4
 Sulfolane                          0.2

31.19 What is the pH of Coca-cola?.

Phosphoric acid is an approved food-grade acid that is added to Coca-cola 
to provide some of the taste. When CO2 is added to "carbonate" aqueous
solutions, carbonic acid is formed. A tin of coca-cola was cooled in a
refrigerator to 7C and the pH of the sample measured over time. The pH
electrode was not temperature-compensated, so a correction was applied.

  Time              pH                pH
               (when opened)     (corrected)            
Initial          2.75 @ 7C           2.6
30 seconds       2.78 @ 7C           2.6
60 seconds       2.80 @ 7C           2.6
2 minutes        2.82 @ 7C           2.7
4 minutes        2.80 @ 7C           2.6

A sample was degassed in an ultrasonic bath for several minutes and the
pH measured, and compared to a control sample maintained at the same 
temperature and time profile.
                    pH
Degassed pH      2.52 @ 21c
RT sample        2.50 @ 20C

So the conclusion is that the pH of Coca-Cola is approximately 2.5 - 2.7.
Not surprisingly, the relatively weak carbonic acid from the dissolved CO2 
did not significantly affect the pH of the beverage. The aluminium beverage 
containers are lined with a thin polymer or lacquer coating to prevent the 
aluminium metal dissolving into the beverage.

Note that the differing flotation characteristics of cans of the normal  
versions of carbonated beverages like Coca-Cola ( they may sink ), and 
the diet versions ( they may float ), has nothing to do with the amount
of CO2 present. It is due to the increase in solution density from the 
few percent of sugar added to the normal version, while the diet version
has only a few hundred ppm of an artificial sweetener that is much sweeter
than sugar.

------------------------------

Subject: 32. References

Note: "Refer 6.1" = Section 6, Reference 1. 

Section 6:

[1]  Beilstein's Handbuch der Organischen Chemie - 4th edition
     F.K.Beilstein 
     (edited by P.Jacobson, B.Prager, F.Richter, H.G.Boit et al)
     Springer (1918-)

[2]  Bretherick's Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards - 5th edition
     ( edited by P.G.Urben )
     Butterworths (1995) ISBN 07506-15575
     -also available on CD-ROM ( Aldrich Cat.Z26-812-7 US$544.50 )

[3]  Chemical Abstracts Service
     CAS                       Internet E-mail: help@cas.org
     2540 Olentangy River Rd   Customer Service Te blephone: 800-753-4227
     PO Box 3012               or 614-447-3600  or  (614) 447-3731
     Columbus, OH  43210       Telefax:   614-447-3751
                               Fax: (614) 447-3751
                               http://www.cas.org 

[4]  Advanced Inorganic Chemistry - 5th edition
     F.A.Cotton and G.Wilkinson
     John Wiley (1988) ISBN 0-471-17560-9

[5]  Reagents for Organic Synthesis.
     L.F.Fieser and M.Fieser.
     Wiley (1980-) ISSN 0271-6747(v1-7) ISSN 0271-616X(v8-)

[6]  Gardner's Chemical Synonyms and Tradenames - 10th edition
     W.Gardner (edited by M.Ash and I.Ash)
     Gower Technical Press (1994) ISBN 0-566-07491-5
     - also available on CD-ROM ( Aldrich Cat. Z24,870-3 US$302.50 )   

[7]  Gmelin's Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie
     E.Pietsch et al (editors)
     Verlag Chemie (1926-)

[8]  The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics - 9th edition
     L.S.Goodman, A.G.Gilman, L.E.Limbird, P.B.Milinoff. (editors)
     McGraw Hill (1996) ISBN 00702-62667

[9]  Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary - 12th edition
     G.G.Hawley ( edited by R.J.Lewis,Sr.) 
     Van Nostrand Reinhold (1992) ISBN 0-442-01131-8 
     - available with Sax on CD-ROM

[10] Dictionary of Organic Compounds ( formerly Heilbron ) - 5th edition
     J.Buckingham et al. (editors)
     Chapman and Hall (1982-92) ISBN 0412-17000-0 (v1)

[11] Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology - 4th edition.
     Editor. M.Howe-Grant.
     Wiley. ISBN 0-471-52681-9 (1993-) 25 volumes, approx.US$320/vol.
     - available on CD-ROM.

[12] Lange's Handbook of Chemistry - 14th edition
     J.A.Dean (editor)
     McGraw Hill (1992) ISBN 0-07-016194-1

[13] The Extra Pharmacopoeia - 31th edition
     Martindale ( edited by J.E.F.Reynolds )
     Pharmaceutical Press (1996) ISBN 0-85369-342-0

[14] Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design
     J.J.McKetta
     Marcel Dekker (1990-) ISBN 0-8247-2497-6

[15] A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry
     J.W.Mellor
     Longman (1922-1967)

[16] Merck Index - 12th edition
     S.Budavari et al. (editors)
     Merck & Co. (1996) ISBN 0-911910-12-3
     - available on CD-ROM for approximately three times the hardcopy price, 
       check out the Merck WWW site for details.  

[17] Chemical Engineers' Handbook - 7th edition
     R.H.Perry and D.W.Green (editors)
     McGraw-Hill (1997) ISBN 0-07-049841-5

[18] Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances
     National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
     Cincinnati, Ohio 45226. 

[19] CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics - 78th edition.
     D.R.Lide (editor)
     CRC Press (1997) ISBN 0-8493-0478-4

[20] Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials - 9th edition
     N.I.Sax ( edited by R.J.Lewis Sr. )
     Van Nostrand Reinhold (1996) ISBN 0-442-02025-2
     CD-ROM ( also includes Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary )
     - annual subscription with quarterly updates, 
       ISBN 0442-01946-7 Aldrich Cat. Z25,176-3  US$715.00

[21] Shreve's Chemical Process Industries - 5th edition
     R.N.Shreve and G.T.Austin
     McGraw Hill (1984) ISBN 0-07-057147-3

[22] Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry - 5th edition. 
     Editor, B.Elvers.
     VCH. ISBN 3-527-20123-8 (1993-).

[23] Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis - 5th edition
     A.I.Vogel
     (previously Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis )
     5th Ed. (revised by G.H.Jeffery et al) Longman (1989) ISBN 0-470-21517-8  
     4th Ed. (revised by J.Bassett et al.) Longman (1978) ISBN 0-582-46321-1
     3rd Ed. Longman (1962) ISBN 0-582-44247-8
     (Note - I personally prefer the 3rd edition which was the last written
     by A.I.Vogel, he provided more alternatives for each analysis, 
     especially for titrations )

[24] Vogel's Qualitative Inorganic Analysis - 7th edition
     A.I.Vogel 
     ( previously Macro and Semi-micro Qualitative Inorganic Analysis )
     7th Ed. ( revised by G.Svehla ) Longmans (1996) ISBN 058-221866-7
     4th Ed. Longmans (1954) SBN 582 44246 X
     ( Note - I've never seen the 7th edition - I'm very happy with the 4th
     edition, which was the last by A.I.Vogel )

[25] Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry - 5th edition
     A.I.Vogel 
     5th Ed. (revised by A.R.Tatchell et al) Wiley (1989) ISBN 0582-46236-3
     4th Ed. (revised by B.S.Furniss et al) Longman (1978) ISBN 0582-44250-8
     3rd Ed. Longmans (1956)
     ( Note - the 3rd edition was the last by A.I.Vogel, but the 4th has the 
     advantage of discussing of modern techniques. I have not seen the 5th.)

[26] Vogel's Elementary Practical Organic Chemistry - 3rd edition
     A.I.Vogel.  ( revised by B.V.Smith and N.M.Waldron )
     Longman (1980) ISBN 0-582-47009-99v10

Section 7:

[1]  Refer 6.3

[2]  Dialog
     Knight-Ridder Information, Inc.
     www http://www.dialog.com
     email info@dialog.com
     phone 800-334-2564, or 415-254-7000
     fax 415-254-7070

[3]  Information Sources for Organic Chemistry, 1-3.
     A.S.Somerville
     J.Chem.Ed v.68 p.553-561 (1991)
     J.Chem.Ed v.68 p.842-853 (1991)
     J.Chem.Ed v.69 p.379-386 (1992)
 
[4]  Searching the Beilstein Database Online: A comparison of systems.
     R.E.Buntrock, M.A.Palma
     Database, December 1990. p.19-34

[5]  A Wealth of Information Online
     M.J.Mazzella
     Chemical Engineering. June 1989 p.112-127

Section 9:

[1]  What Every Engineer Should Know About Patents - 2nd edition
     W.G.Konold, B.Tittel, D.F.Frei, D.S.Stallard 
     Marcel Dekker (1989) ISBN 0-8247-8010-8

[2]  Chem Sources : International - 5th edition
     Chemical Sources International (1994) ISBN 0-937020-21-4

[3]  Chem Sources : USA - 35th edition
     Chemical Sources International (1994) ISBN 0-937020-20-6   

[4]  OPD Chemical Buyers Directory - 82nd edition
     ( issued as part of subscription to Chemical Marketing Reporter)
     Scnell Publishing (1995) ISBN 1-878800-04-3 

[5]  The 1996-1997 Aldrich Catalog/Handbook
     Aldrich Chemical Company
     P.O.Box 355
     Milwaukee. Wl 53201 
     Orders:  Mail  PO Box 2060, Milwaukee Wl 53201 USA.
              Phone. 414-273-3850
              Fax. 414-273-4979
     Customer Service: Phone 414-273-3850

[6]  J.T.Baker Inc.
     222 Red School Lane
     Phillipsburg. NJ 08865
     Phone 800-582-2537
     Fax.  908-859-9318

[7]  Refer 6.19

[8]  Refer 6.16

[9]  Refer 6.12

[10] Refer 6.9

[11] Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants - 16th edition
     G.W.C Kaye and T.H.Laby ( now by a panel of editors )
     Longman (1995) ISBN 0-582-226295

[12] Chemical Technicians' Ready Reference Handbook - 4th edition
     G.J.Shugar, J.T.Ballinger, and L.M.Dawkins
     McGraw Hill (1996) ISBN 0-07-057186-4

[13] Matheson Gas Data Book - 6th edition
     W.Braker and A.L.Mossman
     Matheson Gas Products (1980) ISBN 999-267037-1

[14] McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Science and Technology - 2nd edition
     McGraw Hill (1989) ISBN 0-07-045512-0
     CD-ROM ( Aldrich Cat. Z23,277-0 US$495.00)

[15] Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia - 8th edition
     D.Considine ( editor )
     Van Nostrand Reinhold (1994) ISBN 0-442-01864-9

[16] McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Chemistry 
     S.P.Parker 
     McGraw-Hill (1993) ISBN 0-07-045455-8

[17] McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology - 7th edition
     McGraw Hill (1992) ISBN 0-079-092063
     -also available on CD-ROM ( Aldrich Cat. Z24,871-1 US$1300 ) 

[18] Refer 6.11

[19] Refer 6.22

[20] Refer 6.1

[21] Refer 6.7

[22] Refer 6.10

[23] Refer 6.14

[24] Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering - 2nd edition
     H.F.Mark et al (editors)
     John Wiley (1985-1990) ISBN 0-471-89540-7(v1)

[25] Thorpe's Dictionary of Applied Chemistry - 4th edition
     I.Heilbron et al (editors)
     Longmans (1954) 

[26] High Vacuum Techniques for Chemical Synthesis and Measurements.
     P.H.Plesch
     Cambridge University Press (1989) ISBN 0-521-25756-5

[27] High Vacuum Technique: Theory, Practice and Properties of Materials 
     - 4th Edition
     J.Yarwood
     Chapman and Hall (1967) ISBN 0-412-21190-4

[28] Swagelok Tube Fitting and Installation Manual
     F.J.Callahan
     Markad Service Co. (1985)
 
[29] Thermocouples: Theory and Properties
     D.D.Pollock
     CRC Press (1991) ISBN 0-8493-4243-0

[30] Merck KGaA
     D-64271 Darmstadt
     Germany
     Phone   ++496151/72-0
     Fax     ++496151/72-2000

[31] Rhone-Poulenc Prolabo Division
     12 Rue Pelee
     75011 Paris
     France

[32] Sigma Chemical Company
     P.O.Box 14508
     St.Louis, MO. 
     USA 63178-9916

[33] Janssen Chimica Division
     Janssen Pharmaceuticalaan 3
     2440 Geel
     Belgium

[34] Lancaster Synthesis Ltd
     Eastgate, White Lund
     Morecombe, Lancashire LA3 3DY
     United Kingdom.  

[35] Standard Infrared Spectra
     Sadtler Research Laboratories

[36] The Aldrich Library of Infrared Spectra - 3rd edition
     C.J.Pouchert
     Aldrich Chemical (1981) ISBN 0-941633-07-1

[37] The Aldrich Library of FT-IR Spectra
     C.J.Pouchert
     Aldrich Chemical (1985-) ISBN 0-941633-20-9(v1&2), 0-941633-19-5(v3) 

[38] Standard NMR Spectra
     Sadtler Research Laboratories 

[39] The Aldrich Library of C13 and H1 FT-NMR Spectra
     C.J.Pouchert and J.Behnke
     Aldrich Chemical (1992) ISBN 0-941633-34-9

[40] The Aldrich Library of NMR Spectra - 2nd edition
     C.J.Pouchert
     Aldrich Chemical (1983) ISBN 0-941633-08-X

[41] NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Data Base
     S.R.Heller and G.W.A.Milne
     US Govt. Printing Office (1978) NSRDS-NBS 63
     CD-ROM ( MS-Windows - Aldrich Z25,737-0 US$1320 ) 

[42] Wiley/NBS Registry of Mass Spectral Data
     F.W.Lafferty and D.B.Stanffer ( editors )
     John Wiley (1988)

[43] Industrial Chemical Thesaurus - 2nd edition
     M.Ash and I.Ash
     VCH (1992) ISBN 1-56081-615-5

[44] Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemical Additives
     M.Ash and I.Ash
     Chemical Publishing Co. (1987) ISBN 0-8206-0320-1

[45] Chemical Tradenames Dictionary
     M.Ash and I.Ash
     VCH (1993) ISBN 1-569081-625-2

[46] The Chemical Formulary 
     ( 32 volume series that is still growing )
     H.Bennett
     Chemical Publishing Co. (1933-) ISBN 0-8206-0345-7 (1994 vol)

[47] The History of Chemistry
     J.Hudson
     Routledge Chapman and Hall (1992) ISBN 0-412-03641-X

[48] Chemistry of the Elements
     N.N.Greenwood and A.Earnshaw
     Butterworth Heineman (1997) ISBN 0-08-0379419

[49] The Elements - 3rd edition
     J.Emsley
     Oxford University Press (1997) ISBN 0-19-855959-3

[50] Discovery of the Elements - 7th edition
     M.E.Weeks ( revised by H.M.Leicester )
     Journal of Chemical Education (1968) ISBN 0-317-09341-X

[51] The Chemical Bond: Structure and Dynamics
     A.Zewail (Ed)
     Academic Press (1992) ISBN 0-12-779620-7

[52] Chemistry in the Next Century
     Thomas Midgley, Jr.
     Ind.Eng.Chem. v.27 n.5 p.494-498 (1935)

[53] Midgley: Saint or Serpent?.
     G.B.Kauffman.
     Chemtech, December 1989. p.717-725.

Section 10:

[1]  Sigma-Aldrich CD-ROM of 70,000+ MSDS
     Aldrich Catalogue Z17,500-5 
     Annual Subscription US$1650

[2]  Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials - 10th edition
     National Fire Protection Association (1991)

[3]  The Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data - 2nd edition
     R.E.Lenga (editor)
     Sigma-Aldrich (1988) ISBN 0-941633-16-0 

[4]  CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety - 4th edition.
     A.K.Furr (editor)
     CRC Press (1995) ISBN 08493-2518-8

[5]  Hazards in the Chemical Laboratory - 5th edition
     S.G.Luxon (editor)
     Royal Society of Chemistry (1992) ISBN 0-85186-229-2

[6]  Refer 6.2

[7]  The Sigma-Aldrich Library of Regulatory and Safety Data
     R.E.Lenga and K.L.Votoupal (editors)
     Sigma-Aldrich (1992) ISBN 0-941633-35-7

[8]  Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices - 1990/91 edition
     - issued annually, and latest edition should be obtained and used.
     TLV-BEI (1990) ISBN 0-936712-86-4
     ACGIH ( 6500 Glenway Ave., Bldg.D-7., Cincinnati, OH 45211-4438 )
 
[9]  Guide to Occupational Exposure Values - 1990-1991
     - issued annually, and latest edition should be obtained and used.
     Guide to Occupational Exposure Values (1990) ISBN 0-936712-87-2
     ACGIH ( 6500 Glenway Ave., Bldg.D-7., Cincinnati, OH 45211-4438 ) 

[10] Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety - 3rd edition
     L.Parmeggiani
     International Labour Office - Geneva (1989) ISBN 92-2-103289-2

[11] Refer 9.17

[12] Guidelines for Laboratory Design: Health and Safety Considerations
     - 2nd edition
     L.J.DiBerardinis et al.
     John Wiley & Sons (1993) ISBN 0-471-55463-4

[13] Laboratory Health and Safety Handbook - 2nd edition
     R.S.Stricoff and D.B.Walters
     John Wiley & Sons (1995) ISBN 0-471-02628-X 

[14] Contact Lenses and Chemicals: An Update
     E.B.Segal
     Chemical Health and Safety. January/February 1995 p.16-21.

[15] Contact Lens Emergencies
     A.P.Cullen
     Chemical Health and Safety. January/February 1995 p.22-24.

[16] Contact Lenses and Chemicals: Update 1997
     E.B.Segal
     Chemical Health and Safety. May/June 1997 p.33-37

[17] Contact lenses in industry: The ongoing discussion.
     B.R.Blais
     Chemical Health and Safety. July/August 1997 p.22-26   

Section 11:

[1]  Refer 9.36
 
[2]  Refer 9.37

[3]  Refer 9.40

[4]  Refer 9.39

[5]  Refer 9.41

[6]  Fiveash Data Management, Inc.   Reference Spectra Databases,
     P. O. Box 400                   Books, and Chemical Information
     Fort Atkinson, WI 53538 USA
     Email  FDM@intaccess.com        Phone: 414-563-6449
     http://www.intaccess.com/fdm    Fax: 414-563-5964

[7]  Refer 9.24

[8]  Spot Tests - 4th edition
     F.Feigl ( translated by R.E.Oesper )
     Elsevier (1954)

[9]  Spot Tests in Inorganic Analysis - 6th edition
     F.Feigl and V.Anger ( translated by R.E.Oesper )
     Elsevier (1972) ISBN 0-444-409297

[10] Refer 6.24

[11] Refer 6.23
 
[12] Refer 6.25

[13] Treatise on Analytical Chemistry - 2nd edition
     I.M.Kolthoff and P.J.Elving
     Wiley Interscience (1978) ISBN 0-471-80648-X (p1.v14.)

[14] Techniques of Chemistry series
     A.Weissberger
     ( Previously known as Techniques of Organic Chemistry and Techniques of
     Inorganic Chemistry )
     Wiley Interscience (1970-)

[15] Instrumental Methods of Analysis - 6th edition
     H.H.Willard, L.L.Merritt Jr., J.A.Dean, F.A.Settle Jr.
     D.Van Nostrand (1981) ISBN 0-442-24502-5

[16] Analytical Instrumentation Handbook
     G.W.Ewing (editor)
     Marcel Dekker (1990) ISBN 0-8247-8184-8

[17] 'Analar' Standards for Laboratory Chemicals - 8th edition   
     D.J.Bucknell
     BDH Chemicals/Whitefriars Press (1984) ISBN 0-9500439-4-X

[18] Reagent Chemicals - 8th edition
     American Chemical Society (1992) ISBN 0-8412-2502-8

[19] Refer 6.13

[20] Official Methods of Analysis - 16th edition  
     P.A.Cunniff (editor) 
     Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1995) ISBN 0-935584-54-4 

[21] Compilation of EPA Sampling and Analysis Methods
      L.H.Keith (editor)  
      Lewis Publishers Boca Raton (1991)

[22] EPA Sampling and Analysis Methods Database
      - available on computer disk ( Aldrich Cat. Z23,084-7 US$257.95 )

[23] Chromatography in Petroleum Analysis
     K.H.Altgelt and T.H.Gouw (editors)
     Marcel Dekker (1979) ISBN 0-8247-6790-X

[24] The Analysis of Gases by Chromatography
     C.J.Cowper and A.J.DeRose
     Pergamon Press (1983) ISBN 0-08-024027-5

[25] Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 
     - 16th edition ( APHA, AWWA, and AWPF joint methods )
     A.G.Greenberg, R.R.Trussell, L.S.Clesceri (Eds)
     American Public Health Assn. (1985) ISBN 0-87553-131-8

[26] Water Analysis
     W.Fresenius, K.E.Quentin, and W.Schneider (editors)
     Spring-Verlag (1988) ISBN 0-387-17723-X

[27] Determination of Organic Substances in Water
     T.R.Crompton
     Wiley-Interscience (1985) ISBN 0-471-90468-6 (v1), 0-471-90469-4 (v2).

[28] Water - A Comprehensive Treatise ( six volumes )
     F.Franks (editor)
     Plenum Press (1972-1979) ISBN 0-306-37181-2 (v1)

[29] Methods of Decomposition in Inorganic Analysis
     Z.Sulcek and P.Povondra
     CRC Press (1989) ISBN 0-8493-4963-X

[30] Handbook of Analytical Derivatization Reactions
     D.R.Knapp
     John Wiley (1979) ISBN 0-471-03469-X

[31] Handbook of Derivatives for Chromatography - 2nd edition
     K.Blau and J.M.Halket (editors)
     John Wiley (1993) ISBN 0-471-92699-X

[32] Environmental Chemistry - 6th Ed.
     S.E.Manahan 
     Lewis Publishers (1994) ISBN 1-56670-088-4

[33] Fundamentals of Environment Chemistry
     S.E.Manahan
     Lewis Publishers (1993) ISBN 0-873-71587-X 

[34] Environmental Organic Chemistry
     R.P.Schwarzenbach, P.M.Gschwend, and D.M.Imboden
     John Wiley (1993) ISBN 0-471-83941-8

[35] Metals and their Compounds in the Environment: Occurrence, Analysis 
     and Biological Relevance. 
     E. Merian (editor) 
     VCH (1991) ISBN 0-89573-562-8

[36] Physical Chemistry - 5th edition
     P.W.Atkins
     Oxford University Press (1994) ISBN 0-7167-2511-8

[37] Textbook of Physical Chemistry - 2nd edition
     S.Glasstone
     Van Nostrand/MacMillan (1946) 

[38] Physical Methods of Chemistry Series - 2nd edition
     B.W.Rossiter, J.F.Hamilton
     ( Previously known as Volume 1 of the Techniques of Chemistry series )
     Wiley Interscience (1986-)

[39] Inorganic Chemistry
     D.F.Shriver, P.W.Atkins, and C.H.Langford
     Oxford University Press (1995) ISBN 0-19-855397-8
     - you should also obtain the problem answers -
     Guide to Solutions for Inorganic Chemistry
     S.H.Strauss 
     Oxford University Press (1994) ISBN 0-19-855772-8

[40] Refer 6.23

[41] Refer 6.7

[42] Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry
     R.B.King (editor)
     John Wiley (1994) ISBN 0-471-936200

[43] Refer 6.4

[44] Organic Chemistry - 6th edition
     T.W.G.Solomons
     John Wiley & Sons (1995) ISBN 0-471-01342-0

[45] Organic Chemistry - 3rd edition
     L.F.Fieser and M.Fieser
     Reinhold (1956)

[46] Advanced Organic Chemistry - 3rd edition
     F.A.Carey and R.J.Sundberg
     Plenum Press (1990) ISBN 0-306-43447-4(A), 0-306-43457(B)

[47] Organic Reactions 
     John Wiley & Sons (1942+)

[48] Refer 6.5

[49] The Logic of Chemical Synthesis
     E.J.Corey and X.Cheng
     Wiley (1989) ISBN 0-471-50979-5

[50] Refer 6.10

[51] Refer 6.1

[52] Refer 6.21

[53] Refer 6.8

[54] Essentials of Medicinal Chemistry - 2nd edition
     A.Korolkovas (editor)
     John Wiley (1988) ISBN 047-188356-5

[55] Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients
     A.Wade and P.J.Weller
     Pharmaceutical Press (1994) ISBN 0853693056, 091730668

Section 12:

[1]  Names and Symbols of Transfermium Elements
     Pure and Appl.Chem. v.66 p.2419-2421 (1994) 

[2]  Heavy Element name saga ends
     M.Freemantle
     C&EN  8 September 1997 p.9-10

[3]  Interconversion of ASHRAE Refrigerant Numbers and Chemical Compositions
     A.A.Woolf
     J.Chem.Ed. v.70 p.35-36 (1993)
 
[4]  Polyunsaturated fatty acids in diet and health
     I.S.Newton
     Chemisty and Industry  21 April 1997 p.302-305.

[5]  Nutritional aspects of n-3 fatty acids
     Inform v.8 n.5 p.428,429,433,434,437,439,440,443,444,447 (May 1997) 
 
[6]  Conjugated Linoleic Acid - The Good News about Animal Fat.
     C.Steinhart
     J.Chem.Ed. v.73 p.A302-A303 (December 1996)

[7]  Conjugated Linoleic Acid, a newly recognised nutrient
     M.W.Pariza
     Chemistry and Industry. 16 June 1997 p.464-466.

[8]  Concise Encyclopedia of Biochemistry - 2nd Ed
     T.Scott and M.Eagleson 
     Walter de Gruyer  ISBN 3-11-011625-1 (1988)
     
[9]  International Encyclopedia of Chemical Science
     D.Van Nostrand.  (1964)

[10] Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1971)
  
[11] Bring Back Equivalent Weight - If You Want the Kids To "Think"!
     M.Laing
     J.Chem.Ed. v.72 p.1007-1012  ( November 1996 ) 

[12] Dyeing Reagents for Thin Layer and Paper Chromatography
     22/II 13/2699/10/1170L
     E.Merck,  Darmstadt.

[13] Piranha solution explosion
     D.A.Dobbs, R.G.Bergman, K.H.Theopold 
     C&EN 23 April 1990 p.2

[14] Cleaning glass funnels
     T.Wnuk 
     C&EN 25 June 1990 p.2

[15] Piranha solution explosions
     C.V.Erickson
     C&EN 13 August 1990 p.2

Section 13:

[1]  The Sassafras Tree and Designer Drugs - From Herbal Tea to Ecstasy.
     L.G.French
     J.Chem.Ed. v.72 n.6 p.484-491. (June 1995).    

[2]  PiKAL : A Chemical Love Story - Parts 1 and 2
     A.T.Shulgin and A.Shulgin
     Transform Press ( Part 1 )
     (refer to alt.drugs FAQs for publishing information )  

[3]  Analysis of Semtex Explosives
     J.R.Hobbs
     p.409-427 
     Advances in Analysis and Detection of Explosives
     J.Yinon (editor)
     Kluwer Academic Publishers ISBN 0-7923-2138-3 (1993).

[4]  The Semtex-H Story
     A.W.Feraday
     p.67-72.
     Advances in Analysis and Detection of Explosives
     J.Yinon (editor)
     Kluwer Academic Publishers ISBN 0-7923-2138-3 (1993).
 
[5]  Oklahoma bomb shows common items' power
     M.Rouhi
     C&EN. 1 May 1995. p.8 

[6]  Nitrogen Triiodide
     I.C.Tornieporth-Oetting, T.M.Klapotke
     Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.Engl. v.29 p.677-679 (1990)
 
[7]  The Chemical Elements and their Compounds
     N.V.Sidgwick
     Oxford University Press (1950) 

[8]  Advanced Energetic Materials Emerge for Military and Space Applications
     S.Borman
     C&EN 17 January 1994 p.18-22.

[9]  Recent Advances in Explosives and Solid Propellants
     J.C.Bottaro  
     Chemistry & Industry (UK) 1 April 1996 p.249-252.
 
[10] Transforming Explosive Art in Science
     A.Heller
     Science & Technology Review June 1997 p.4-13.     

[11] Refer 6.11
     v.10. p.1-125. "Explosives and Propellants"  

[12] Explosives - 4th edition
     R.Meyer
     VCH (1993) ISBN 1-56081-266-4

[13] Chemistry of Powder and Explosives
     T.L. Davis,
     - available from Delta Press (deltagrp@eldonet.com), 
       or Loompanics (loompanx@olympus.net) 
       P.O. Box 1197, Port Townsend. WA 98368.

[14] Investigations of Fire and Explosion Accidents in the Chemical, Mining, 
     and Fuel-Related Industries - A Manual 
     J.M.Kuchta 
     US Dept. of the Interior. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 680 (1985). 

[15] The Chemistry and Technology of Explosives
     T.Urbanski
     Pergamon. v.1-3 (1967) v.4 (1984) ISBN 0-08-030252-1

[16] The Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items
     B.T.Federoff, O.E.Sheffield, and S.Kaye
     PATR 2700, v.1-10. ARDEC, Dover, NJ.

Section 15:

[1]  Chemical Demonstrations - A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry
     B.Z.Shakhashiri
     University of Wisconsin Press (4 vols.) ISBN 0-318-56863-2 (1992)

[2]  Chemical Demonstrations - A Sourcebook for Teachers - 2nd edition
     L.R.Summerlin, J.L.Ealy Jr.
     Amer.Chem.Soc. (1988) ISBN 0-8412-1481-6 (v1), 0-8412-1535-9 (v2)

[3]  The Blue Bottle Experiment Revisited
     A.G.Cook, R.M.Tolliver, and J.E.Williams.
     J.Chem.Ed. v.71 n.2 p.160-161 (February 1994) 

[4]  Oscillating Chemical Reactions
     I.R.Epstein, K.Kustin, P.De Kepper, and M.Orban
     Scientific American p.96-108 (1983)

[5]  Oscillating Chemical Reactions and Nonlinear Dynamics
     R.J.Field and F.W.Schneider
     J.Chem.Ed v.66 p.195-204 (March 1989)

[6]  Recipes for Belousov-Zhabotinsky Reagents
     W.Jahnke and A.T.Winfree
     J.Chem.Ed v.68 p.320-324 (April 1991)

[7]  Hydrogen Balloon Explosions
     R.Battino, B.S.Battino
     J.Chem.Ed. v.69 n.11 p.921-923 (November 1992)
 
[8]  The Incredible "Glowing" Pickle and Onion and Potato and...
     P.M.Weimer, R.Battino
     J.Chem.Ed. v.73 n.5 p.456-457 (May 1996)

[9]  Glowing Veggies
     P.Scharlin, A.A.Cleveland, R.Battino, and M.E.Thomas.
     J.Chem.Ed. v.73 n.5 p.457-459 (May 1996) 

[10] The Gelation of Polyvinyl Alcohol with Borax
     E.Z.Casassa, A.M.Sarquis, and C.H.Van Dyke
     J.Chem.Ed. v.63 n.1 p.57-60 (January 1986)

[11] Slime and Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Fibers
     G.S.Stroebel, J.A.Whitesell, and R.M.Kriegel
     J.Chem.Ed. v.70 n.11 p.893 (November 1993)

[12] The Gelation of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) with Na2B4O7.10H2O: Killing Slime
     K.W.McLaughlin, N.K.Wyffels, A.B.Jentz, and M.V.Keegan    
     J.Chem.Ed v.74 n.1 p.97-99 (January 1997) 

Section 16:

[1]  Desiccant Efficiency in Solvent Drying. A Reappraisal by
     Application of a Novel Method for Solvent Water Assay.
     D.R.Burfield, K.H.Lee, R.H.Smithers.
     J.Org.Chem. v.42, p.3060-3065. (1977).

[2]  Molecular Sieves - Dessicants of Choice.
     D.R.Burfield, G.H.Gan, R.H.Smithers.
     J.Appl.Chem.Biotech. v.28, p.23-30. (1978). 

[3]  Desiccant Efficiency in Solvent Drying. 3. Dipolar Aprotic Solvents
     D.R.Burfield and R.H.Smithers
     J.Org.Chem. v.43, p.3966-3968 (1978).

[4]  Desiccant Efficiency in Solvent Drying. Applications of Cationic Exchange
     Resins.
     D.R.Burfield and R.H.Smithers
     J.Chem.Tech.Biotechnol. v.30, p.491-496 (1980)

[5]  Desiccant Efficiency in Solvent and Reagent Drying. 5. Amines
     D.R.Burfield, R.H.Smithers, and A.S.C.Tan
     J.Org.Chem. v.46, p.629-631 (1981).

[6]  Drying of Grossly Wet Ether Extracts
     D.R.Burfield, R.H.Smithers
     J.Chem.Ed. v.59, p.703-704 (1982)

[7]  Desiccant Efficiency in Solvent and Reagent Drying. 7. Alcohols.
     D.R.Burfield, R.H.Smithers 
     J.Org.Chem. v.48, p.2420-2422 (1983)

[8]  Desiccant Efficiency in Solvent and Reagent Drying. 8. Molecular Sieve
     Column Drying of 95% Ethanol: An Application of Hygrometry to the Assay
     of Solvent Water Content.
     D.R.Burfield, G.T.Hefter, and D.S.P.Koh
     J.Chem.Tech.Biotechnol. v.34A, p.187-194 (1984)

[9]  Desiccant Efficiency in Solvent and Reagent Drying. 9. A Reassessment of
     of Calcium Sulfate as a Drying Agent.
     D.R.Burfield.
     J.Org.Chem. v.49, p.3852-3854 (1984)  

[10] Oven Drying of Volumetric Glassware
     D.R.Burfield and G.Hefter
     J.Chem.Ed. v.64 p.1054 (1987)

[11] Neues Verfahren zur maBanalytischen Bestimmung des Wassergehaltes
     von Flussigkeiten und festen Korpern 
     K.Fischer 
     Angew. Chem., v.48 p.394-396 (1935)

[12] Titrimetric Determination of Water in Organic Liquids using Acetyl
     Chloride and Pyridine
     D.M.Smith and W.M.D.Bryant
     J.Amer.Chem.Soc., v.57 p.841-845 (1935)

[13] Karl Fischer Titration
     E.Scholz
     Springer-Verlag (1984) ISBN 3-540-13734-3

[14] An Effective Technique for Cleaning Glassware
     D.P.Higley
     J.Chem.Ed. v.52 p.306 (1975)

[15] Refer 6.23 

[16] Standard Glassware Cleaning Solutions
     The Chemist's Companion 
     J.Wiley & Sons  ISBN 0-471-31590-7  (1972) 

[17] Laboratory Hazards - an explosion involving "chromic acid".
     W.R.Bryson
     Chem.Brit. v.11 p.377 (1975) 

[18] Chromic Acid explosions
     M.J.Pitt
     Chem. Brit. v.11 p.456 (1975)

[19] Chromic Acid explosions
     S.Downing
     Chem. Brit. v.11 p.456 (1975)

[20] A Less Hazardous Chromic Acid Substitute for Cleaning Glassware
     P.L.Manske, T.M.Stimpel, and E.L.Gershey
     J.Chem.Ed. v.67 p.A280-A282 (1990)
  
[21] Regeneration of Chromic Acid Cleaning Solution
     D.Schwab and P.Martinez
     J.Chem.Ed. v.66 p.528 (1989)

[22] Oxidising Acid Baths - without Chromate Hazards
     H.M.Stahr, W.Hyde, and L.Siegler
     Anal.Chem. v.54 p.1452A (1982)  

[23] How to Remove Silicone Compounds or Greases.
     Dow Corning Silicone Bulletin 06-005 (1962) 

[24] Removing Silicone Grease from Glassware
     T.H.Lowry
     J.Chem.Ed. v.74 p.841 (1997)

[25] Removing Silicone Greases from Round Bottom Flasks
     T.J.Reilly
     J.Chem.Ed. v.73 p.381 (1996)  

Section 17:

[1]  Purification of Laboratory Chemicals - 3rd edition
     D.Perrin, W.Armarego 
     Pergamon Press (1988) ISBN 0-08-034714-2

[2]  Palladium Reagents in Organic Syntheses
     R.F.Heck
     Academic Press (1985)

Section 18:

[1]  Refer 15.1

[2]  A Multicolored Luminescence Demonstration
     P.E.Smith, K.Johnston, D.M.Reason, and G.M.Bodner
     J.Chem.Ed. v.69 n.10 p.827-828 (October 1992)

[3]  Overview of Sweeteners
     J.W.Ellis 
     J.Chem.Ed. v.72 n.8 p.671-675 (August 1995)

[4]  Discovery of Highly Sweet Compounds from Natural Products
     A.D.Kinghorn, E.J.Kennelly
     J.Chem.Ed. v.72 n.8 p.676-679 (August 1995)

[5]  Sweeteners: A question of taste
     G.G.Birch
     Chemistry and Industry 3 February 1997 p.90-94.

[6]  Rediscovering the Wheel - The Flame Test Revisited
     R.O.Ragsdale and J.A.Driscoll
     J.Chem.Ed. v.69 n.10 p.828-829 (October 1992)

[7]  Flame Colors Demonstration
     J.R.Peyser and J.R.Luoma.
     J.Chem.Ed. v.65 n.5 p.452-453 (May 1988)

[8]  Refer 6.11
     Chromogenic Materials v.6 p.312-343.

[9]  Electrochromic Materials
     R.J.Mortimer
     Chem.Soc.Revs. v.26 p.147-156 (1997)

[10] Sunglasses that Respond to Brightness
     S.D.Stookey
     J.Chem.Ed. v.47 p.176 (1970)

[11] Photochromic Sunglasses
     B.Osterby, R.D.McKelvey, and L.Hill
     J.Chem.Ed. v.68 p.424-425 (1991)

[12] Thermochromism
     J.H.Day
     Chem.Rev. v.63 p.65-80 (1963)

[13] The Physics and Chemistry of Color
     K.Nassau
     John Wiley & Sons. (1983) ISBN 047-186776-4

Section 19:

[1]  Solutions to Sticky Problems. Booklet 
     More Solutions to Sticky Problems. Booklet
     BROOKFIELD Engineering Laboratories Inc, MA, USA. 
     
[2]  Introduction to Practical Viscometry. Booklet
     HAAKE, Mess-Technik GmbH.

[3]  Principles and Applications of Rheology. 
     A.G.Frederikson 
     Prentice-Hall Inc. NJ.

[4]  Viscosity and Flow Measurement. 
     Van Wazer, Lyons, Kim, Colwell. 
     Interscience Publishers. NY

[5]  Electrorheological technology: The future is now.
     K.O.Havelka and J.W.Pialet.
     Chemtech p.36-45 ( June 1996 )
 
[6]  Electrorheological Fluids: Mechanisms, Properties, Technology and 
     Applications.
     Edited by R.Tao and G.Roy   
     World Scientific, Singapore (1994) ISBN 98102-16394

[7]  Active Damping using ERM fluids.
     Automotive Engineering p.19-23 (June 1993).  

[8]  Extraction with Supercritical Fluids
     G.M.Schneider, E.Stahl, G.Wilke
     Verlag Chemie (1980) ISBN 352725854X

[9]  Solvents get the big squeeze
     D.Bradley
     New Scientist, 6 August 1994. p.32-35.

[10] Past, Present, and Possible Future Applications of Supercritical
     Fluid Extraction Technology
     C.L.Phelps, N.S.Smart, and C.M.Wai
     J.Chem.Ed. v.73 n.12 p.1163 (December 1996)   

[11] Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics 
     C.E. Brennen. 
     Oxford University Press (1995) ISBN 0-19-509409-3

[12] Relativistic Effects in Structural Chemistry
     P.Pyykko
     Chem. Rev. v.88 p.563-594 (1988)  

[13] Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties
     D.R.McKelvey
     J.Chem.Ed. v.60 p.112-116 (February 1983)

[14] Relativistic Effects at the Freshman Level
     M.S.Banna
     J.Chem.Ed. v.62 p.197-198 (March 1985)

[15] Periodic Contractions among the Elements
     J.Mason
     J.Chem.Ed. v.65 p.17-20 (January 1988)

[16] Why is Mercury Liquid?
     L.J.Norby
     J.Chem.Ed. v.68 p.110-113 (February 1991)

Section 20:

[1]  Refer 11.15

[2]  Chemical Instrumentation:  A Systematic Approach. - 3rd edition
     H.A. Strobel  
     John Wiley (1989) ISBN 0-471-61223-5 

[3]  Polarized Light.
     W.A. Shurcliff and S.S. Ballard   
     Princeton: D. Van Nostrand, (1964)

[4]  Optics.
     E. Hecht and A. Zajac
     Reading, Mass.:  Addison Wesley Publ. Co., (1974).

[5]  The Chemist's Ready Reference Handbook
     G.J. Shugar and J.A. Dean
     New York: McGraw-Hill (1990) ISBN 0-07-057178-3

[6]  Molecular Optical Activity and the Chiral Discriminations.
     S.F. Mason
     Cambridge University Press (1982) ISBN 0-521-24702-0

[7]  Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity
     L.D. Barron 
     Cambridge University Press (1983) ISBN 0-521-24602-4

[8]  Problems and Experiments in Instrumental Analysis.
     C.E. Meloan and R.W. Kiser   
     Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc. 1300 Alum Creek Drive, 
     Columbus 16, OH, (1963).

Section 22:

[1]  Refer 11.13

[2]  Refer 11.14

[3]  Refer 11.15

[4]  Refer 11.16

Section 23:

[1]  Laboratory Handbook of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods 
     - 3rd edition
     E.Heftmann
     Van Nostrand Reinhold (1975) ISBN 0-442-23280-2

[2]  Thin Layer Chromatography - 2nd edition
     E.Stahl
     Springer-Verlag (1969) ISBN 0-387-04736-0

[3]  Techniques of Chemistry - Vol. XIV
     Thin-Layer Chromatography - 2nd edition
     J.G.Kirchner
     Wiley-Interscience (1978) ISBN 0-471-93264-7
     Sigma Chemical (1990) ISBN 0-941633-25-X (reprint)

[4]  Refer 11.30

[5]  Refer 11.31

[6]  Basic Gas Chromatography - 3rd edition
     H.McNair and E.Bonelli
     Varian (1969) ISBN 999-642376-X

[7]  High-Resolution Gas Chromatography
     K.J.Hyver and P.Sandra
     Hewlett Packard (1989) P/N=5950-3562 ISBN 999-184716-2

[8]  Open Tubular Column Gas Chromatography
     M.L.Lee, F.J.Yang, K.D.Bartle
     John Wiley & Sons (1984) ISBN 0-471-88024-8

[9]  Sadtler Gas Chromatography Standard Retention Index Library
     Sadtler Research Laboratories (1986).  

[10] Introduction to Modern Liquid Chromatography - 2nd edition
     L.R.Snyder and J.J.Kirkland
     Wiley-Interscience (1979) ISBN 0-471-03822-9

[11] Troubleshooting LC Systems
     J.W.Dolan and L.R.Snyder
     Humana Press (1989) ISBN 0-89603-151-9

[12] Practical HPLC Method Development - 2nd edition
     L.R.Snyder, J.J.Kirkland, and J.L.Glajch.
     John Wiley & Sons (1997) ISBN 0-471-00703-X

[13] The Practice of Ion Chromatography
     F.C.Smith Jr. and R.C.Chang 
     Krieger Publishing (1991) ISBN 089464-502-1 

[14] Ion Chromatography
     H.Small
     Plenum Press (1989) ISBN 0-306-43290-0

[15] Modern Size Exclusion Chromatography
     W.W.Yau, J.J.Kirkland, D.Bly
     John Wiley & Sons (1979) ISBN 0-471-03387-1

Section 24:

[1]  Reactions in Supercritical Fluids
     L.Boock, B.Wu, C.LaMarca, M.Klein, and S.Paspek
     Chemtech. December 1992. p.719-723.

[2]  Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatography
     B.A.Charpentier and M.R.Sevenants
     Amer.Chem.Soc. Symposium Series v.366 (1988) ISBN 0841214697

[3]  Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology
     K.P.Johnston and M.L.Penninger
     Amer.Chem.Soc. Symposium Series v.406 (1989) ISBN 0841216789

[4]  Supercritical Fluid Engineering Science: Fundamentals and Applications
     E.Kiran, J.F.Brennecke
     Amer.Chem.Soc. Symposium Series v.514 (1993) ISBN 0-8412-2513-3 

[5]  Solving Process Problems with Supercritical Extraction
     J.Via, L.T.Taylor
     Chemtech. November 1993. p.38-44.

[6]  The Use of Supercritical Fluids in the Isolation of Natural Products
     C.D.Bevan and P.S.Marshall
     Natural Products Reports, 1994. p.451-466.

[7]  Supercritical Chemistry: Synthesis with a Spanner.
     M.Poliakoff and S.Howdle
     Chemistry in Britain. February 1995. p.118-121

[8]  Proceedings of the International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids
     - 2nd (1991) Baltimore. USA. ( proceedings edited by M.A.McHugh, 
     published by John Hopkins University. Baltimore. MD21218 )
     - 3rd (1994) Strasbourg. France. ( proceedings published by Institut
     National Polytechnique de Lorraine. ISBN 2-905267-23-8 ).

Section 26:

[1]  International pH Scales and Certification of pH.
     H.B.Kristenson, A.Salomon, and G.Kokholm
     Anal.Chem. v.63, p.885A-891A (1991).

[2]  Determination of pH, Theory and Practise - 2nd edition
     R.G.Bates
     John Wiley & Sons. (1973) ISBN 0-317-09107-7

[3]  Ion-Selective Electrodes in Analytical Chemistry
     H.Freiser (editor)
     Plenum Publishing. (1978) ISBN 0-306-40500-8

[4]  Ion-Selective Electrode Methodology 
     A.K.Covington (editor)
     CRC Press. (1979) ISBN 0-8493-5247-9 (2 vols) 

Section 27:

[1]  Modern Petroleum Technology - 5th edition.
     Editor, G.D.Hobson.
     Wiley. ISBN 0 471 262498 (1984).
     - Chapter 1. G.D.Hobson.

[2]  Hydrocarbons from Fossil Fuels and their Relationship with Living
     Organisms.
     I.R.Hills, G.W.Smith, and E.V.Whitehead.
     J.Inst.Petrol., v.56 p.127-137 (May 1970).

[3]  Refer 27.1
     - Chapter 9. R.E.Banks and P.J.King.

[4]  Refer 27.1
     - Chapter 20. K.Owen.

[5]  Comparative Studies of Methane and Propane as Fuels for Spark Ignition
     and Compression Ignition Engines.
     G.A.Karim and I.Wierzba.
     SAE Paper 831196. (198?).

[6]  Experiments with MTBE-100 as an Automobile Fuel.
     K.Springer, L.Smith.
     Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels. 
     - Proceedings, v.1 p.53 (1993).

[7]  Oxygenates for Reformulated Gasolines.
     W.J.Piel, R.X.Thomas.
     Hydrocarbon Processing, July 1990. p.68-73.

[8]  The Chemical Kinetics of Engine Knock.
     C.K.Westbrook, W.J. Pitz.
     Energy and Technology Review, Feb/Mar 1991. p.1-13. 

[9]  The Chemistry Behind Engine Knock.
     C.K.Westbrook.
     Chemistry & Industry (UK), 3 August 1992. p.562-566.

[10] The Methanolysis of Tallow
     P.J.S.Bain
     Report of Investigation 2590 (1988)
     DSIR. PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt, New Zealand.  

[11] Variables Affecting the Yields of Fatty Esters from Transesterified
     Vegetable Oils
     B.Freedman, E.H.Pryde, T.L.Mounts
     JAOCS v.61 p.1638-1643 (1984)  

[12] NZ Liquid Fuels Trust Board Reports LF1199 - LF1210
     Available ( for a fee ) from Liquid Fuels Management Group Limited
     P.O.Box 17, Wellington, New Zealand.

[13] Evaluating Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel
     T.Murayama
     Inform v.5 p.1138-1145 (1994)

[14] Quality Control of Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters used as Diesel Fuel
     Substitutes: Quantititative determination of mono-, di-, and
     triglycerides by Capillary GC.
     C.Plank and E.Lorbeer
     J. High Resolut. Chromatog. v.15 p.609-612. (1992)  

Section 28:

[1]  Chiral Pharmacology and the Regulation of New Drugs 
     John Caldwell
     Chemistry and Industry  6 March 1995 p.176-179

[2]  Thalidomide: From tragedy to new drug discovery.
     G.W.Muller
     Chemtech January 1997 p.21-25.

Section 31:

[1]  IR Long-Path Photometry: A Remote Sensing Tool for Automobile Emissions
     G.A.Bishop, J.R.Stanley, A.Ihlenfeldt, W.J.Williams, and D.H.Stedman
     Anal.Chem. v.61, p.671A-677A. (1989) 

[2]  Optical Remote Sensing for Air Pollutants - Review.
     M.Simonds, H.Xiao, and S.P.Levine
     Am.Ind.Hyg.Assoc.J. v.55, p.953-965 (1994)

[3]  US Patent 3,570,156. March 16, 1971.

[4]  How to make a Lava Lamp
     R.Hubscher 
     Popular Electronics. March 1991, p. 31 (4). Gernsback Publications.
     - also in Popular Electronics' "1992 Electronics Hobbyists Handbook".

[5]  Goretex patent
     U.S. Pat. 3,962,153 (8 June 1976) R.W.Gore (to W.L.Gore and Associates) 

[6]  The Chemistry behind the Air Bag
     A.Madlung
     J.Chem.Ed v.73 n.4 p.347-348 (April 1996) 

[7]  Automotive safety is in the bag 
     Steven Ashley
     Mechanical Engineering. January 1994. p.58-64 
     ( best technical descriptions)

[8]  Airbags : Education and Experience
     Automotive Engineering. September 1993. p.29-32

[9]  Everything you need to know about airbags
     Autocar & Motor (UK). 3 March 1993. p.55-57

[10] The Toxicology of Inorganic Mercury 
     L.J.Goldwater
     Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., v.65 p.498-503 (1957)

[11] Refer 10.4

[12] Refer 11.35

[13] Vaporisation of Mercury spillage. 
     J.F.Copplestone and D.A.McArthur.
     Archives of Environmental Health v.13. p.675 (1966)

[14] The clean up of spilled mercury by a new technique. 
     J.Shurgan and L.Harris  
     J.Amer.Ind.Hyg.Assn. v.38 p.146 (March 1977).

[15] Elimination of liquid mercury. 
     K.Wacks 
     Fette-seifen-Anstrichmittel. v.76 p.425-426. (1974, in German)

[16] The Water Book - Barnstead 1990 Catalogue.
     Barnstead Thermolyne Corporation
     2555 Kerper Blvd. Dubuque. IA 52001. USA
     Phone   319-556-2241    800-553-0039
     Fax     319-556-0695

[17] Millipore Catalogue.
     Millipore Corporation
     Bedford,  MA 01730. USA.
     Phone   617-275-9200    800-225-1380
     Fax     617-275-8200     

[18] Nerve Gases Unveiled
     C&EN v.31 p.4676,4678 (1953)

[19] Tokyo Subway Attack - Chemical Weapon Possible Terrorist Tool.
     L.Ember
     C&EN. 27 March 1995. p.6-7.

[20] Dioxins in Food
     UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
     Food Surveillance Paper No. 31
     HMSO (1992) ISBN 0-11-242926-2

[21] Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentration levels 
     in human adipose tissue samples from the continental US collected from 
     1971 through 1987
     J.S.Stanley et al. 
     Chemosphere v.20 p.895-901 (1990). 

[22] Dioxin Risk - Are We Sure Yet?. ( p.24A-25A )
     EPA's Dioxin Reassessment. ( p.26A-28A ) 
     EPA on the Right Track ( p.29A-30A )
     EPA Assessment Not Justified ( p.31A-32A )
     ES&T v.29 p.24A-32A. ( January 1995 )

[23] Dioxins in U.S.Food and Estimated Daily Intake
     A.Schecter et al.
     Chemosphere v.29 p.2261-2265 (1994) 

[24] Cherry red and very dangerous
     R.Edwards    
     New Scientist. 29 April 1995. p.4-5

[25] The Super Stain Book
     J.Cassimatis.
     Lansdowne ISBN 0 7018 1727 5 (1984)

[26] Removing Stains from Fabrics
     Home and Garden Bulletin No. 62
     Science and Education Administration
     United States Department of Agriculture (1978)

[27] Stain Removal from Fabrics by Home Methods
     Dept. of University Extension. Otago University (NZ). 
     Whitcoulls (1977) 

[28] Surface pretreatment for phosphoric acid-based rust removers
     M.Svoboda and B.Knapek
     Product Finishing v.22 p.41-46 (1969)  

[29] Permeability of Commercial Solvents Through Living Human Skin
     C.Ursin, C.M.Hansen, J.W.Van Dyk, P.Jensen, I.J.Christensen, J.Ebbehoej.
     Am.Ind.Hyg.Assoc.J. v.56 p.651-660 (1995)
Teil 1 Teil 2 Teil 3 Teil 4 Teil 5 Teil 6 Teil 7
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